# 2.05 Voltage.

Voltage is a measure of a electrical potential.

V = W/Q where:

- V is electrical potential or voltage measured in volts (V).
- W is the electrical potential energy of the charge measured in Joules (J).
- Q is the quantity of charge measured in Coulombs (C).

**Example.**

A battery increases the energy of every 10C of charge that is transferred between its terminals,
by 15 Joules. What is the battery voltage?

V = ?

W = 15J.

Q = 10C.

V = W/Q, = 15/10, =1.5V.

## Potential difference (p.d.).

A potential difference is simply a difference in electrical potential, between two points in a circuit. For example, a potential
difference exists across the terminals of a battery. The electrons at the negative terminal, are at a higher potential than
the electrons at the positive terminal. *(Just as the gravitational potential of a person at the top of a lift shaft,
is higher than someone at the bottom)*.

**IMPORTANT.**

In circuit calculations ,we use conventional current flow and therefore we regard the positive terminal as having a higher
electrical potential than the negative terminal and the charge flowing from positive to negative, (even though we now know
this is not really the case).